When I try to go back and view previous quarters or weeks etc. following the proper guidelines for time-scaled views, even though there is data there, I still receive the time period error.
The time periods requested do not exist. Review the column's Time Scale settings.
If the timescale has any weeks that fall outside of the range in your current view, you will receive this error; even if it has weeks that do fall in the range.
Temporarily changing the number of periods to 1 in the Time-Scaled view, should allow you to go back to previous periods and view the data without receiving the error.
See TEC439086 for an explanation to which periods are available for viewing.