CVE-2016-5195 is also known as "Dirty COW", and is a privilege escalation vulnerability in the Linux kernel.
Some key details from the "Dirty COW" website:
"CVE-2016-5195 is the official reference to this bug. CVE (Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures) is the Standard for Information Security Vulnerability Names maintained by MITRE."
A note on what the "Dirty COW" vulnerability is (and why it's called that) from Red Hat:
"A race condition was found in the way the Linux kernel's memory subsystem handled the copy-on-write (COW) breakage of private read-only memory mappings. An unprivileged, local user could use this flaw to gain write access to otherwise read-only memory mappings and thus increase their privileges on the system."